An Introduction to Spread-Spectrum Communications

Abstract: This application note is a tutorial overview of spread-spectrum principles. The discussion covers both direct-sequence and fast-hopping methods. Theoretical equations are given to allow performance estimates. Relation to CDMA and TDMA is provided. A schematic of a code sequence generator is shown. Spectral plots illustrate direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) and frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) methods.