A Filter Primer

Abstract: This comprehensive article covers all aspects of analog filters. It first addresses the basic types: first- and second-order filters, highpass and lowpass filters, notch and all-pass filters, and high-order filters. The tutorial then explains the characteristics of the different implementations, such as Butterworth filters, Chebychev filters, Bessel filters, elliptic filters, state-variable filters, and switched-capacitor filters.